# Amortization Financial Accounting

Premiums are amortized in similar fashion to discounts under the effective interest method. Suppose a company issues \$100,000 in 10-year, 9% coupon bonds at a premium to face value.

It is usually set by the market, expressed in percentages and constant throughout the debts lifetime, although the decreasing amount of money owed in the case of loans makes the payments increasingly smaller. In addition to straight line depreciation, there are also other methods of calculating depreciation of an asset. Different methods of asset depreciation are used to more accurately reflect the depreciation and current value https://online-accounting.net/ of an asset. A company may elect to use one depreciation method over another in order to gain tax or cash flow advantages. To illustrate the discount on bonds payable, let’s assume that in early December 2020 a corporation prepares a 9% \$100,000 bond dated January 1, 2021. The interest payments of \$4,500 (\$100,000 x 9% x 6/12) will be required on each June 30 and December 31 until the bond matures on December 31, 2025.

## Straight Line Depreciation

It is most useful when an asset’s value decreases steadily over time at around the same rate. Straight line basis is calculated by dividing the difference between an asset’s cost and its expected salvage value by the number of years it is expected to be used.

You can then calculate your monthly payment by taking this sum total and dividing it into an equal number of monthly payment periods representing the total duration of your loan. Therefore, \$730,445 divided into 360 monthly payments results in a monthly payment amount of \$2,029.01. Estimating the functional lifespan or the maturity of intangible assets or bonds and loans is required. It is usually set by the market, expressed in percentages and constant throughout the debt’s lifetime, although the decreasing amount of money owed in the case of loans makes the payments increasingly smaller. Since the bond has a life of 5 years, the annual amortization of bond discount would equal \$1,516 (\$7,580 divided by 5). The critical observation to make is that the straight line method is a much more simple calculation. Straight line amortization of premiums or discounts results in the same amount of interest expense, amortization, and cash interest in every single year until the bond is repaid.

## AccountingTools

The only thing that doesn’t change from year to year is the amount of cash interest paid on the bond. To calculate cash interest, we multiply the face value of the bonds (\$100,000) by the coupon rate (9%) to get \$9,000. The cash interest is calculated by taking the coupon rate of the bond (9%) and multiplying it by the bond’s face value (\$100,000), resulting in \$9,000 of cash interest. In the first period, we record \$93,855.43 as the carrying amount of the bond.

### What is the purpose of Amortisation?

The purpose of amortisation is to bring about a systematic reduction in the value of an intangible asset. The intangible assets include goodwill, patents, trademarks etc.

The straight-line method of amortization is designed to provide borrowers with a fixed, recurring monthly payment that remains fixed throughout the duration of the loan. Using the straight-line method of amortization, you can make responsible decisions regarding your mortgage and ensure that you are capable of meeting the requirements outlined by your lender.

## Straight-line, prorate first & last period

The price at which a company sells its bonds — and the resulting premium or discount — is an important factor, and it must be accounted for. The straight line amortization concept is commonly used by banks to create mortgage and loan amortization schedules. This approach is relatively simple and is slightly different from the approach used in bonds amortization. This is because bonds can be issued at a premium or a discount and even at the market rate.

• Though straight-line amortization applies to bonds in the investment industry, the method can technically apply to any situation in which a person or a company must make uniform payments over a set period of time.
• Using the straight-line method, the company’s annual amortization expense is \$2,000 (\$20,000/10).
• In the case of bank loans and mortgages, each months interest is calculated as a percentage of the total sum of money that still needs to be repaid.
• He or she should also be well versed in recent changes to tax laws, including how depreciation deductions can be used in the current tax year.
• Hearst Newspapers participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites.

As a bond discount arises when coupon rate is lower than the market rate, the bond discount amortization must be added to the interest payment to arrive at market-equivalent interest expense. In the straight-line method of amortization of bond discount or premium, bond discount or premium is charged equally in each period of the bond’s life. Straight line amortization is always the easiest way to account for discounts or premiums on bonds. Under the straight line method, the premium or discount on the bond is amortized in equal amounts over the life of the bond.

## Benefits of Straight-Line Amortization

We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Free Financial Modeling Guide A Complete Guide to Financial Modeling This resource is designed to be the best free guide to financial modeling! Note how the book value of the machine at the end of year 5 is the same as the salvage value. Over the useful life of an asset, the value of an asset should depreciate to its salvage value. Company A purchases a machine for \$100,000 with an estimated salvage value of \$20,000 and a useful life of 5 years. Harold Averkamp has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.

### GLOBAL NET LEASE, INC. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. (form 10-Q) – Marketscreener.com

GLOBAL NET LEASE, INC. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. (form 10-Q).

Posted: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Investors only demand an 8% return for owning the bond, and thus pay the company \$106,710.08 for the bonds. You can calculate payment amounts using the straight-line amortization method if you know the total value of the loan including interest and its length. Mortgage repayment constitutes amortization because the bank loses its claim to the loan, and thus loses an intangible financial asset.

This method can be used to depreciate assets where variation in usage is an important factor, such as cars based on miles driven or photocopiers on copies made. Accountants calculate amortization as a means of spreading the cost of an intangible asset across all the years of its profitable life span and determining the value lost. If a company’s profits are unstable, it may choose to use this method of amortization which will help them avoid paying tax on periodic basis. This is attributable to the discount account, which is offset against bonds payable in arriving at the carrying value . Determining the interest to be paid for the intangible asset such as the interest that will be paid out where investors put their money in a bond. To calculate depreciation using a straight line basis, simply divide net price by the number of useful years of life the asset has.

The journal entries for the remaining years will be similar if all of the bonds remain outstanding. To demonstrate the use of the straight-line method, we will return to the Valenzuela Corporation example. Straight line basis is popular because it is easy to calculate and understand, although it also has several drawbacks. Full BioAmy is an ACA and the CEO and founder of OnPoint Learning, a financial training company delivering training to financial professionals. She has nearly two decades of experience in the financial industry and as a financial instructor for industry professionals and individuals. Daniel Liberto is a journalist with over 10 years of experience working with publications such as the Financial Times, The Independent, and Investors Chronicle. He received his masters in journalism from the London College of Communication.

## How to Account for Franchise Fees

The straight-line method of amortization in the investment industry applies to bonds. A company sells bonds to raise large sums of money from individual small investors. For instance, if a company needs \$100,000 in loans, it might issue one hundred \$1,000 bonds.

• The excess premium received is amortized by the company over the bond term, and the concept is known as Amortization of Bond Premium .
• Suppose a company issues \$100,000 of 10-year bonds that pay an 8% annual coupon.
• Since a bond’s discount is caused by the difference between a bond’s stated interest rate and the market interest rate, the journal entry for amortizing the discount will involve the account Interest Expense.
• The critical observation to make is that the straight line method is a much more simple calculation.
• This will be directly influenced by the interest rate attached to your mortgage.
• The finite useful life of such an asset is considered to be the length of time it is expected to contribute to the cash flows of the reporting entity.

Kirsten is also the founder and director of Your Best Edit; find her on LinkedIn and Facebook. For \$70,000, having an estimated useful life of seven years with no salvage value at the end. This post is to be used for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal, business, or tax advice. Each person should consult his or her own attorney, business advisor, or tax advisor with respect to matters referenced in this post. Bench assumes no liability for actions taken in reliance upon the information contained herein.